when to harvest garlic and garlic scapes

When to harvest garlic (and garlic scapes!) and how to store it for the winter

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One vegetable I have not had to purchase in several years is garlic. Every fall, without fail, I place an order. I like to try different varieties, so I split a bigger order with a couple of other green thumbs and then divvy it up. I think one of the best things about growing garlic is you get two harvests! But a key thing to note if you’re new to growing it, is when to harvest garlic—and those delicious garlic scapes that come sooner in the season.

I usually spread my garlic crop out over a couple of my raised beds. If I still need space, I’ll pop a few extra here and there in an ornamental garden. Jessica has written a great article about the differences between hardneck and softneck garlic. Another great resource is a book written a few years ago by Canadian author Liz Primeau called In Pursuit of Garlic.

a garlic order ready to plant

I order my garlic from a local company called Bulbs of Fire.

Before we talk about when to harvest garlic, let’s first discuss how to harvest garlic scapes and ensure they don’t go to waste!

When to harvest garlic scapes

Garlic scapes usually start to make their appearance on hardneck garlic sometime in June (this may differ if you’re in a different zone). Not all of my varieties are always ready at the same time, which is nice because I can harvest in batches and enjoy them for longer.

Garlic scapes are easy to discern from the rest of the plant because they kind of look like green onions with a long elf hat (the bulbil) at the end. You’ll know your scapes are ready to pick when they form a spiral. Simply cut the scape (I use my herb scissors) at the base where it comes out of the stalk. If the scapes become straight, after they’ve gone through their curling phase, they’re past their prime. They’ll be tougher than a younger fresh scape and taste bitter.

garlic scapes ready to pick

Garlic scapes are ready to harvest when they form a ring or spiral.

Once I have a handful of scapes, I usually whip them into garlic scape pesto (some of which I’ll freeze in ice cube trays). I snip off the elf hats and simply use the stalk. If you don’t cut your scapes and leave them on the plant, the bulbils turn into flowers and seeds. Even if you don’t intend to eat your garlic scapes, it’s still a good idea to snip them at the base of their stalk so that all the energy can go back into growing the bulb underground.

When to harvest garlic

After you cut the garlic scapes, you have about month or so until the garlic itself is ready. A few years ago, when I was writing an article for another publication, I interviewed a gentleman from PEI by the name of Al Picketts who has a company called Eureka Garlic. I discovered him after reading about the black garlic he grows, but that’s a whole other topic. But I did ask him when is garlic ready to harvest because timing is everything.

Al explained that he uses a calendar to determine when to pull his own crops—for example, he always harvests Turban garlic on July 25. But because we all live in different gardening zones and various climates, in general, he says to look for two dead, dry leaves at the base of the plant, with a third leaf that is starting to die.

When is garlic ready to pick

Keep an eye on your garlic leaves. You’ll know garlic is ready to pick when the bottom two leaves have died and a third is on its way.

“The first leaf may be hard to see as it could be eaten up already by the soil bacteria,” he explains. “When it is time to harvest, there will still be plenty of green leaves, but don’t let this stop you. The reason for harvesting at the right time is because the bulb is wrapped with leaves. When a leaf dies, the soil bacteria eat it. This leaf will disappear not only above ground but also below.”

This is the rule of thumb I’ve been following for over 10 years.

How to harvest garlic

The best way to remove a garlic bulb depends on the variety you’ve planted. For Turban, Artichoke, and Silverskin varieties, you might want to use a pitch fork or spade—being careful not to touch the bulb. I usually pull my hardneck varieties, like Rocambole and Porcelain, because the talks are usually super-thick and sturdy.

Sometimes the soil and bulbs need a little coaxing. I’ve found that when I mulch my raised bed with straw in the fall, the soil is much looser than if I just leave the bed exposed for the winter. By the time the garlic is ready to be pulled, it can sometimes have become more hard-packed.

Without a winter mulch, I’ve found myself before with a broken stalk in my hand and a clove of garlic still hiding beneath the soil. But you also want to make sure you don’t bruise or break the bulb beneath the soil. Bruising affects the storage life.

freshly pulled garlic

Pile garlic gently in the shade until you are ready to cure it in a cool, dry space.

I usually take my jumbo trowel or a bigger spade and well away from the bulb, I gently try to lift the soil beneath it. Usually this nudges the bulb up a bit, loosening the soil enough for me to pull the stalk. I gently remove excess dirt, again being careful not to bruise the bulb.

What if you pull garlic too early?

It’s sometimes hard to know if a smaller head of garlic will keep growing, even if the bottom three leaves have died away. There is a rapid growth stage just before garlic is ready to harvest, so a few days could make a significant difference. But then sometimes a bulb is just going to be runty no matter what.

Keeping squirrels away from your garlic

Even if though they don’t like garlic, squirrels seem to have special radar for disturbed garden soil. I’ve gone out to the garden to find a perfectly good clove laying on top of the soil. I find the layer of straw mulch helps to deter them. I’ve also taken to lightly sprinkling hen manure over the site after I’ve planted, as well.

How do you dry and store garlic?

Curing garlic basically means drying it out. You want lots of air flow and a cool place to cure it. Drying racks are great to have because you can use them for other veggies and herbs, too. I made my own drying rack out of screen stapled to a scrap wood frame. I place it on a stack of bricks or buckets in my garage so air flows underneath. In years past, I’ve also hung my garlic in bunches, secured by twine around the stalks, in the garage. You can braid the stalks to store, as well.

After my garlic has dried, I’ll “clean” it by gently removing dirt and debris, and perhaps one outer dried layer, over a bucket. I’ll trim the long stalk off, so I have a clove like what you’d see at the grocery store. I used to store my bulbs in a flat-bottomed bowl until I saw Jessica’s clever storage idea in her video where she places them in empty egg cartons.

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When to harvest garlic (and garlic scapes) and how to store garlic for the winter

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42 Responses to When to harvest garlic (and garlic scapes!) and how to store it for the winter

  1. Pete says:

    Excellent post, Thankyou! When is the best time to plant garlic shoots?

    • Tara Nolan says:

      Hi Pete, you can plant garlic that has sprouted in spring, but you won’t get the same harvest as you would if you had planted your garlic in the fall.

  2. Janet says:

    How long does your garlic keep for?

  3. Tara Nolan says:

    Hi Janet, It usually keeps for most of the winter in my garage before it starts to sprout.

  4. Ernie Barnes says:

    I am in the phillipines..is there much difference growing garlic here where there is no winter?

  5. Suzanne says:

    Hi Trar.
    Can you Grow garlic in a pot in the house? I live in an apartment with no balcony but I am interested in growing garlic. This is my first year without a garden. I do have some oregano and thyme from my garden that I brought with me, which is still growing from last summer. I am going to try several other herbs this year in the house and I would like to try garlic.

  6. Kishanna says:

    Should hardneck (chesnok) be harvested before the scapes grow, even if bottom leaves are turning yellow?

  7. Bardy says:

    It looks like I have multiple dead leaves at base on garlic that has not scaped; do they always scape?

  8. Debbie says:

    What Type of garlic is usually bought at the grocery stores in Ontario. I planted cloves last year that started to sprout from grocery store garlic. Since I don’t know the variety I’m wondering if I should be looking for scapes or not and when to harvest. I actually wasn’t expecting anything to grow this year, but it did.

    • Tara Nolan says:

      Hi Debbie, I’m not sure, it probably varies from grocery store to grocery store. I live in Ontario and my scapes aren’t up yet…

  9. Ang Kwast (me) says:

    I like fresh garlic, how long can I leave it in the ground? Do I have to harvest it all at once or can I keep it in the ground for a month or so? I’m growing Purple Russian in Vancouver BC Canada

  10. Karen says:

    Hi Tara! Thanks for this informative article. I’ve been growing garlic for about a decade and I still learned some great tips! Have you ever seen scapes start to grow, then wither? That happened with a few of my plants once the scape was a few inches long. That’s a first for me. Any ideas?

    • Tara Nolan says:

      Hi Karen, I’m having issues this year, as well. I think I might have an issue with onion maggots in a couple of my scapes, but a couple of other garlic pests include thrips and nematodes.

  11. Beverly Kloppenburg says:

    Do you cut the garlic scapes when they have looped once? Or do you cut after they have two loops?

  12. Joan Lewis says:

    My garlic heads are small do I need to leave them in the pots longer. This my first year growing garlic.

    • Tara Nolan says:

      Hi Joan, sometimes some of my garlic heads come out small, as well. Their size might also depend on the size of the pot they’re in, what’s planted close by, etc. My rule of thumb is to wait until the bottom three leaves have died and then I pull, no matter what. I usually have a mix of big and small heads.

  13. Steve Hall says:

    This is the 2nd year I’ve grown Russian garlic in a community garden plot in Surrey BC. Last year it produced scapes but this year it didn’t. This year’s crop was planted with cloves from last years crop and actually produced bigger bulbs. Any ideas why?

    • Tara Nolan says:

      That’s odd that the scapes didn’t come up. I know mine were very late and ready pretty much at the same time as the garlic bulbs (I cut the scapes and pulled the garlic within days of each other).

  14. Susan says:

    Ok I left the scape on and they have not flowered a green yet but are tiny cloves themselves. What should I do? Let them flower or cut them off?

  15. Debbi says:

    How can I amend my soil for planting in the fall? What should I add to it?

  16. Fran says:

    My garlic is ready to harvest – can I use it for pickling now since my cucumbers are ready too?

  17. Ella Purser says:

    Hi there, How long do I wait until we can cook with the garlic after harvesting?

  18. Sandy says:

    How do you determine when the garlic has cured enough to cut off the tops? I had an issue last year with a lot of my garlic drying up or getting moldy over the winter, and I wondered if I cut off the stalks too soon. It was curing in a less than ideal location in my garage, so I’m thinking I should have given it more time.

    • Tara Nolan says:

      Hi Sandy, usually about 3 to 4 weeks is recommended. It could be that there isn’t enough air circulation in your garage, or it’s too damp, which could account for the mould.

  19. Ginger Cortez says:

    Thank you for this information! – Garlic Lover

  20. Rita says:

    Hi. Thanks for all of the useful tips. I planted garlic for the first time this year (both soft and hard varieties). Though I may have planted them too soon for the weather – I am in the mid Atlantic region (near Philadelphia) and planted Oct 1. It’s Oct 13 can already see green stalks growing in my outside raised bed and I also planted a few in the greenhouse bags. I have two questions. 1) I am curious if the scapes in the greenhouse will keep going and I will be able to harvest garlic in late winter/early spring? 2) will the garlic in the raised outdoor bed be problematic in spring given some of them are pushing through already? Thanks so much for your guidance.

    • Tara Nolan says:

      Hi Rita, I don’t have experience growing in a greenhouse, but it does take garlic about nine months to mature. For the outdoor garlic, early sprouting can happen in the fall during especially warm spells. Once really cold weather hits, it will stop growing and resume in the spring. I would add a bit of mulch to the garden (straw or shredded leaves) to act as a bit of an insulator for the winter.

  21. Janelle Ferrell says:

    Hi Tara, thank you for this article. This is the first time I’ve planted garlic (zone 7). I planted my bulbs about 2 weeks ago and just noticed that I have some shape. What should I do with them so that my garlic survives the winter?

  22. Keith Corbitt says:

    Great article! Planted garlic for first time in fall. Interested in seeing how it does. Have extra space. Every now and then, will have back to back days in the mid 40s. Is it too late to plant garlic now, in mid Jan?

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