Berries are one of the reasons not to clean up the garden.

Six reasons to NOT clean up the garden this fall

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Twenty-some years ago, fresh out of college with a horticulture degree in-hand, I started teaching adult education classes at a local botanic garden. For many years, I taught a class called Preparing Your Garden for the Winter. It was all about how to clean up the garden every fall. I would show slides (remember those?) of how well-kept gardens should look in January. In the images, every plant was cut to the nub, except for the ornamental grasses and butterfly bushes, and the whole garden was snug under a thick layer of mushroom soil mulch. The roses were neatly trimmed to two feet and wrapped in a blanket of burlap, folded and stapled closed to keep them protected from freezing winds. There was nary a fallen leaf in sight; everything was raked up and hauled off. 

You see, that’s how we gardeners used to roll in the early ’90s, before we knew better. Before we knew all the reasons NOT to clean up the garden. We’d cut everything down and perform a big, end-of-the-season gardening clean up until there was no shred of nature left behind. We’d turn the place into a tidied, controlled, and only slightly dirtier version of our living room. Everything was tucked and trimmed and in its place. Most of us weren’t interested in supporting wildlife much beyond hanging up a bird feeder, and the phrase “wildlife habitat” was only used in places like zoos and national parks.

Unfortunately, many gardeners still think of this kind of hack-it-all-down and rake-it-all-up gardening clean up as good gardening, but in case you haven’t already noticed, I’m here to tell you times have changed. Preparing Your Garden for the Winter is a completely different class these days. We now understand how our yards can become havens for creatures, large and small, depending on what we plant in them and how we tend to our cultivated spaces. Thanks to books like Doug Tallamy’s Bringing Nature Home, we now know how important native plants are for insects, birds, amphibians, and even people. Our gardens play an important role in supporting wildlife and what we do in them every autumn can either enhance or inhibit that role.

To that end, I offer you these six important reasons NOT to clean up the garden in the fall.

1. The Native Bees: Many of North America’s 3500-plus species of native bees need a place to spend the winter that’s protected from cold and predators. They may hunker down under a piece of peeling tree bark, or they may stay tucked away in the hollow stem of a bee balm plant or an ornamental grass. Some spend the winter as an egg or larvae in a burrow in the ground. All native bees are important pollinators, and when we remove every last overwintering site by cutting everything down and completely cleaning up the garden, we’re doing ourselves no favor. We need these bees, and our gardens can provide them with much-needed winter habitat.

leaf cutter bee, spring garden clean up

Some species of native pollinators, like this docile leaf cutter bee, overwinter in hollow plant stems.

Related post: Supporting native bees

2. The Butterflies: While the monarch flies south to overwinter in Mexico, most other butterflies stay put and take shelter somewhere dry and safe until spring. Some butterflies, like the mourning cloak, comma, question mark, and Milbert’s tortoise shell, overwinter as adults. They nestle into rock fissures, under tree bark, or in leaf litter until the days grow longer again and spring arrives. Butterflies that overwinter in a chrysalis include the swallowtail family, the cabbage whites and the sulphurs. Many of these chrysalises can be found either hanging from dead plant stems or tucked into the soil or leaf litter. You can guess what a fall gardening clean up does to them. And still other butterfly species, such as the red-spotted purple, the viceroy, and the meadow fritillary, spend the winter as a caterpillar rolled into a fallen leaf or inside the seed pod of a host plant. If we cut down and clean up the garden, we are quite possibly eliminating overwintering sites for many of these beautiful pollinators (and perhaps even eliminating the insects themselves!). Another excellent way you can help butterflies is to build a caterpillar garden for them; here’s how. Declining butterfly populations are one of the best reasons not to clean up the garden.

Related post: Plant extra dill for the swallowtail butterflies

3. The Ladybugs: North America is home to over 400 different ladybug species, many of which are not red with black polka-dots. While the introduced Asian multicolored ladybug comes into our homes for the winter and becomes quite a nuisance, none of our native ladybug species have any interest in spending the winter inside of your house. Most of them enter the insect world’s version of hibernation soon after the temperatures drop and spend the colder months tucked under a pile of leaves, nestled at the base of a plant, or hidden under a rock. Most overwinter in groups of anywhere from a few individuals to thousands of adults. Ladybugs are notorious pest eaters, each one consuming dozens of soft-bodied pest insects and insect eggs every day. Leaving the garden intact for the winter means you’ll get a jump start on controlling pests in the spring. Skipping a fall gardening clean up is one important way to help these beneficial insects.

clean up the garden

Ladybug larvae, such as this one, are voracious predators of many garden pests, including the aphids in this photo. Skipping the fall garden clean up encourages them.

Related post: Lost ladybugs

4. The Birds: Insect-eating birds, like chickadees, wrens, titmice, nuthatches, pheobes, and bluebirds, are very welcome in the garden because they consume thousands of caterpillars and other pest insects as they raise their young every gardening season. Not cleaning up the garden means there will be more protein-rich insects available to them during the coldest part of the year. These birds are quite good at gleaning “hibernating” insects off of dead plant stems and branches, and out of leaf litter. The more insect-nurturing habitat you have, the greater the bird population will be. Your feathered friends will also appreciate feasting on the seeds and berries they can collect from intact perennial, annual, and shrub stems. Song birds are one of the best reasons skip the garden clean up!

Related post: Berries for the birds

5. The Predatory Insects: Ladybugs aren’t the only predatory insects who spend the winter in an intact garden. Assassin bugs, lacewings, big-eyed bugs, minute pirate bugs, damsel bugs, ground beetles, and scores of other pest-munching predatory insects spend the winter “sleeping” in your garden as either adults, eggs, or pupae. They’re one of the best reasons not to clean up the garden in the fall because they help you control pests. To have a balanced population of these predatory insects, you have to have winter habitat; when spring arrives, they’ll be better able to keep early-emerging pests in check if they’ve spent the winter on-site, instead of over in the neighbor’s yard.

clean up the garden

Green lacewings are one of many beneficial insects that need winter habitat.

Related post: Lacewings

6. The People: If the previous five reasons aren’t enough to inspire you to hold off on cleaning up the garden, I’ll add one final reason to the list: You. There is so much beauty to be found in a winter garden. Snow resting on dried seed pods, berries clinging to bare branches, goldfinches flitting around spent sunflowers, juncos hopping beneath old goldenrod fronds, frost kissing the autumn leaves collected at the base of a plant, and ice collected on blades of ornamental grasses. At first, you might not consider yourself to be one of the reasons not to clean up the garden, but winter is a lovely time out there, if you let it be so.

Delaying your garden’s clean up until the spring is a boon for all the creatures living there. Instead of heading out to the garden with a pair of pruning shears and a rake this fall, wait until next April. By then, all the critters living there will be emerging from their long winter nap. And even if they haven’t managed to get out of bed by the time you head out to the garden, most of them will still manage to find their way out of a loosely layered compost pile before it begins to decompose. Do Mother Nature a big favor and save your garden clean up until the spring. And, when spring does arrive, please use these pollinator-friendly tips for cleaning up the garden the right way.

To learn more about how to encourage beneficial insects in your garden – and for plenty of all-around excellent gardening advice – be sure to subscribe to our free, twice monthly e-newsletter

Tell us how you enjoy your garden during the winter months. 

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14 Responses to Six reasons to NOT clean up the garden this fall

  1. Jen Y says:

    In the past 25 yrs I’ve grown anything I rarely clean it up for winter. I used to when I was young but the busy seasons of raising children & caring for aging parents I chose to let it go for more important things. i began to notice how much I loved my messy winter garden for all the reasons you listed! For years my garden friends would look at me & my garden with confusions as I shared the messiness with them. But my garden was the one alive all winter with birds – whether I fill the feeders or not. Everything from tiny sparrows to flickers, hawks & even eagles. I do live in a rural area to my advantage both in the wild life & in no rules from the neighbors on messy yards.

    Now I do choose one garden bed each winter to clean out so that I can replenish soil, gain control of weeds & pests or rearrange at my leisure. With over 5 acres one little bed being cleaned out doesn’t seem to hurt the insect population too much & my beds do much better the following year with an occasional clean up.

    I think rotating the clean up just as we rotate crops is a good way to go. It’s much easier on my back, I have much happier wildlife & beautiful thriving plants as a result!

    • Jen Y, you are a genius, rotating the beds you clean-up is so sensible. I too stopped cleaning the beds when my girls were small and life became hectic.
      Jessica, though most of it got buried this past winter, there is usually enough shrubbery and tall grasses to make it interesting through our snowy northeast winter. Is there anything you think that shouldn’t be left to overwinter?

    • Lynne –
      The only plants I regularly cut back every year are my bearded iris because the iris borers overwinter in/on the foliage. Everything else is left standing. Some folks recommend cutting back and removing any foliage that was diseased, such as monarda with powdery mildew or peonies with botrytis. You can do this, but it certainly doesn’t guarantee you won’t have the same fungal issue in subsequent years. Most fungal issues are either wind-borne or soil-borne so cutting back foliage isn’t a cure-all for them.

  2. Barbara Bellehumeur says:

    The Tiger Grass I planted has finally taken shape and spread providing a great along the foundation cover. Small birds and chipmunks love to settle in there all year long. Leaving it to winter over is good. The rock garden in summer is lovely, but in snow fall it is beautiful.

  3. Jo Anne says:

    Recently I sawd a little red squirrel tumble off the roof of our 2-storey into my front perennial bed. Two of them were roaring around up there & I guess he didn’t stop. He landed in Hosta & Ligularia & lived to roar around up there again.

  4. Kathy says:

    I love watching the winter birds flitting from the grasses and coneflowers foraging for seeds. I never clean my gardens until Spring. It may not look the best, but the wildlife certainly appreciates my lack of fall housekeeping:)

  5. Excellant blog-post, Jessica! I’m in complete agreement with your approach as a way to encourage the natural process in our backyards.
    I would also add that using shredded leaves as mulch on your garden beds will feed earthworms, beneficial microbes and the soil. (Walnut leaves are best composted before using because of they contain a substance that can inhibit plant growth.)
    I use a mulching mower or leaf blower with vacuum/mulching feature to shred them. What doesn’t decompose over winter can be cleaned up in spring (if you want) and the volume of leaves will be greatly reduced.

  6. Helen Opie says:

    I used to leave most of my garden until spring, but here it is nearly under water in early spring and not dried enough to dig out roots of invasive perennial weeds (sedge, bindweed, sumac from next door, wild roses, other brambles, Virginia creeper, knotweed, goutweed, and a little witchgrass) until late June, so I can only to do this in late fall before the ground freezes. I can usually leave some beds untouched because they are not so badly invaded. I feel bad about doing this, but cannot figure out a better way and still be able to plant early veggies before it becomes too hot for them. An?y suggestions? Especially for dealing with sedge, sumac, and brambles?

    • Rosie Beuthien says:

      Veggie beds are a different matter than ornamental gardens. The article (and my own habits) refer to ornamental beds. I’d say it makes sense to clean the veggie beds.

  7. Rachel says:

    While some species of insects do migrate for the winter, others will burrow or find places to stay warm. Leaving your garden for those that do stay is definitely a nice gesture. Thanks for sharing!

  8. RZS says:

    I’m concerned with the infestation of squash beetles aphids and stinkbugs that are also waiting in anticipation for next years crop…isn’t burning the best way to control them?

    • Squash bugs overwinter as adults. They typically leave the plants to nestle under leaf litter and mulch. Aphids can overwinter as either adults or eggs. And how stinkbugs overwinter depends on the species. The trick is to aim for a balance, especially in the vegetable garden where pests can have a real economical impact. I’d suggest you get rid of any plants you know were heavily infested, but leave any “clean” plants intact because when you get rid of debris, you’re also getting rid of overwintering sites for the predatory beneficial insects that naturally help keep these common pests in check. You want the beneficials to stay in the garden so that you have a natural checks-and-balances system already in place if/when any pest insects survive the winter, too. It’s all about having a good balance.

  9. Mark says:

    The leaves of native trees, shrubs and perennials are adapted to not only to harbor native insects but also add nutrients to the soil. This means each plant makes it’s own fertilizer.

  10. Nicole Watkins Campbell says:

    Thanks for all of this great information. I live in a city, and am thinking about leaving leaves on the ornamental beds, but not the grass. We have a Norway map,e hanging over our yard, and the leaves have that black spot. Should I clean them all up as best I can, or can I leave them on the beds?

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